In North Carolina, school-based cases make up about 40% of the referrals to the juvenile justice system. Most of the referrals are for minor, nonviolent offenses.
Only 8% of school-based referrals were for serious offenses during the 2016-17 school year.
African American students make up 26% of the overall student population but received 57% of the suspensions.
A single suspension can triple the likelihood a student will enter the juvenile justice system.
Youth of color are 2.5 times more likely to be referred to a juvenile court and 1.5 times more likely to be placed in secure confinement than white youth.
In North Carolina, 9.2 out of every 10,000 Black students were arrested compared to only 1.6 white students.
About 147 out of every 1,000 Black students were suspended from NC schools in 2015-2016, compared to about 44 white students out of 1000.
Using 2015-16 data, Black students were arrested 5.81 times the rate of white students in NC.
2011 study of school discipline in Texas found that after isolating race by adjusting for 83 other variables, a Black student had a 31 percent greater chance of being disciplined than an identical white or Hispanic student.
A study of suspensions in Chicago schools from 2013-2014 found that Black male students were more than five times more likely to be suspended than white students. Black female students were seven times more likely than white female students.After adjusting for academic level and social disadvantages, Black males were still five times more likely to be suspended, while the disparity for Black females grew to 13 times more likely.